Strategies for Automated Enzymatic Glycan Synthesis (AEGS)

  • Autor:

    Hussnaetter, K.P. / Palm, P. / Pich, A. / Franzreb, M. / Rapp, E. / Elling, L. (2023)

  • Quelle:

    Biotechnology Advances, Oktober 2023, Vol 67, 108208

  • Datum: Juli 2023
  • Abstract

    Glycans are the most abundant biopolymers on earth and are constituents of glycoproteins, glycolipids, and proteoglycans with multiple biological functions. The availability of different complex glycan structures is of major interest in biotechnology and basic research of biological systems. High complexity, establishment of general and ubiquitous synthesis techniques, as well as sophisticated analytics, are major challenges in the development of glycan synthesis strategies. Enzymatic glycan synthesis with Leloir-glycosyltransferases is an attractive alternative to chemical synthesis as it can achieve quantitative regio- and stereoselective glycosylation in a single step. Various strategies for synthesis of a wide variety of different glycan structures has already be established and will exemplarily be discussed in the scope of this review. However, the application of enzymatic glycan synthesis in an automated system has high demands on the equipment, techniques, and methods. Different automation approaches have already been shown. However, while these techniques have been applied for several glycans, only a few strategies are able to conserve the full potential of enzymatic glycan synthesis during the process – economical and enzyme technological recycling of enzymes is still rare.

    In this review, we show the major challenges towards Automated Enzymatic Glycan Synthesis (AEGS). First, we discuss examples for immobilization of glycans or glycosyltransferases as an important prerequisite for the embedment and implementation in an enzyme reactor. Next, improvement of bioreactors towards automation will be described. Finally, analysis and monitoring of the synthesis process are discussed. Furthermore, automation processes and cycle design are highlighted. Accordingly, the transition of recent approaches towards a universal automated glycan synthesis platform will be projected. To this end, this review aims to describe essential key features for AEGS, evaluate the current state-of-the-art and give thought- encouraging impulses towards future full automated enzymatic glycan synthesis.