Institut für Funktionelle Grenzflächen (IFG)

Phosphorus removal and recovery from waste water by Tobermorite-seeded crystallisation of calcium phosphate

  • Autor:

    Berg, U. / Donnert, D. / Weidler, P.G. / Kaschka, E. / Knoll, G. / Nüesch, R. (2006)

  • Quelle:

    Wat. Sci. Technol. (2006), 53, 3, 131-138

  • Datum: 2006
  • Berg, U. / Donnert, D. / Weidler, P.G. / Kaschka, E. / Knoll, G. / Nüesch, R. (2006): „Phosphorus removal and recovery from waste water by Tobermorite-seeded crystallisation of calcium phosphate“. In: Wat. Sci. Technol. (2006)




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Xonotlite was synthesized and tested for phosphateremoval and recovery from synthetic solution in a batch mode. The effects of pH, initial calcium concentration, bicarbonate concentration on phosphateremoval through crystallization were examined. The morphology and X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of xonotlite before and after crystallization confirmed the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite. The results indicated that the crystallization product had a very high P content (> 10%), which is comparable to phosphate rock at the dosage of 50-200 mg xonotlite per liter, with a maximum P content of 16.7%. The kinetics of phosphateremoval followed the second-order reaction equation. The phosphateremoval ability increased with increasing pH.

The precipitation of calciumphosphate took place when pH was higher than 7.2, whereas the crystallization occurred at pH 6.0. A high calcium concentration could promote the removal of phosphate via crystallization, while a high bicarbonate concentration also enhanced phosphateremoval, through that the pH was increased and thus induced the precipitation process. When xonotlite was used to remove phosphate from wastewater, the removal efficiency could reach 91.3% after 24 h reaction, with removal capacity 137 mg/g. The results indicated that xonotlite might be used as an effective crystal seed for the removal and recovery of phosphate from aqueous solution.