Bacteria isolated from hospital, municipal and slaughterhouse wastewaters show characteristic, different resistance profiles
Sib, E. / Lenz- Plet, F. / Barabasch, V. / Klanke, U. / Mykhailo, S. / Hembach, N. / Schallenberg, A. / Kehl, K. / Albert, C. / Gajdiss, M. / Zacharias, N. / Müller, H. / Schmithausen, R.M. / Exner, M. / Kreyenschmidt, J. Schreiber, C. / Schwartz, T. / Parčina, M. / Bierbaum, G. (2020)
Science of The Total Environment, 2020, 746, 140894
- Date: Juli 2020
Multidrug-resistant bacteria cause difficult-to-treat infections and pose a risk for modern medicine. Sources of multidrug-resistant bacteria include hospital, municipal and slaughterhouse wastewaters. In this study, bacteria with resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins were isolated from all three wastewater biotopes, including a maximum care hospital, municipal wastewaters collected separately from a city and small rural towns and the wastewaters of two pig and two poultry slaughterhouses. The resistance profiles of all isolates against clinically relevant antibiotics (including β-lactams like carbapenems, the quinolone ciprofloxacin, colistin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) were determined at the same laboratory. The bacteria were classified according to their risk to human health using clinical criteria, with an emphasis on producers of carbapenemases, since carbapenems are prescribed for hospitalized patients with infections with multi-drug resistant bacteria. The results showed that bacteria that pose the highest risk, i. e., bacteria resistant to all β-lactams including carbapenems and ciprofloxacin, were mainly disseminated by hospitals and were present only in low amounts in municipal wastewater. The isolates from hospital wastewater also showed the highest rates of resistance against antibiotics used for treatment of carbapenemase producers and some isolates were susceptible to only one antibiotic substance. In accordance with these results, qPCR of resistance genes showed that 90% of the daily load of carbapenemase genes entering the municipal wastewater treatment plant was supplied by the clinically influenced wastewater, which constituted approximately 6% of the wastewater at this sampling point. Likewise, the signature of the clinical wastewater was still visible in the resistance profiles of the bacteria isolated at the entry into the wastewater treatment plant. Carbapenemase producers were not detected in slaughterhouse wastewater, but strains harboring the colistin resistance gene mcr-1 could be isolated. Resistances against orally available antibiotics like ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were widespread in strains from all three wastewaters.