Intracellular Sodium Changes in Cancer Cells Using a Microcavity Array-Based Bioreactor System and Sodium Triple-Quantum MR Signal
Kleimaier, D. / Schepkin, V. / Nies, C. / Gottwald, E. / Schad, L.R. (2020)
Processes 2020, 8(10), 1267, doi.org/10.3390/pr8101267
- Date: Oktober 2020
The sodium triple-quantum (TQ) magnetic resonance (MR) signal created by interactions of sodium ions with macromolecules has been demonstrated to be a valuable biomarker for cell viability. The aim of this study was to monitor a cellular response using the sodium TQ signal during inhibition of Na/K-ATPase in living cancer cells (HepG2). The cells were dynamically investigated after exposure to 1 mM ouabain or K+-free medium for 60 min using an MR-compatible bioreactor system. An improved TQ time proportional phase incrementation (TQTPPI) pulse sequence with almost four times TQ signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain allowed for conducting experiments with 12–14 × 106 cells using a 9.4 T MR scanner. During cell intervention experiments, the sodium TQ signal increased to 138.9 ± 4.1% and 183.4 ± 8.9% for 1 mM ouabain (n = 3) and K+-free medium (n = 3), respectively. During reperfusion with normal medium, the sodium TQ signal further increased to 169.2 ± 5.3% for the ouabain experiment, while it recovered to 128.5 ± 6.8% for the K+-free experiment. These sodium TQ signal increases agree with an influx of sodium ions during Na/K-ATPase inhibition and hence a reduced cell viability. The improved TQ signal detection combined with this MR-compatible bioreactor system provides a capability to investigate the cellular response of a variety of cells using the sodium TQ MR signal.