Microbiological characterization of aquatic microbiomes targeting taxonomical marker genes and antibiotic resistance genes of opportunistic bacteria
Alexander, J. / Bollmann, A. / Seitz, W. / Schwartz, T. (2015)
Science of the Total Environment (2015), 512-513, 316-325
- Date: 2015
Alexander, J. / Bollmann, A. / Seitz, W. / Schwartz, T. (2015): „Microbiological characterization of aquatic microbiomes targeting taxonomical marker genes and antibiotic resistance genes of opportunistic bacteria“. In: Science of the Total Environment (2015), 512-513, 316-325
The dissemination of medically relevant antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) (blaVIM-1, vanA, ampC, ermB, and mecA) and opportunistic bacteria (Enterococcus faecium/faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, and CNS) was determined in different anthropogenically influenced aquatic habitats in a selected region of Germany.
Over a period of two years, four differently sized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with and without clinical influence, three surface waters, four rain overflow basins, and three groundwater sites were analyzed by quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). Results were calculated in cell equivalents per 100 ng of total DNA extracted from water samples and per 100 mL sample volume, which seems to underestimate the abundance of antibiotic resistance and opportunistic bacteria. High abundances of opportunistic bacteria and ARG were quantified in clinical wastewaters and influents of the adjacent WWTP.
The removal capacities of WWTP were up to 99% for some, but not all investigated bacteria. The abundances of most ARG targets were found to be increased in the bacterial population after conventional wastewater treatment. As a consequence, downstream surface water and also some groundwater compartments displayed high abundances of all four ARGs. It became obvious that the dynamics of the ARG differed from the fate of the opportunistic bacteria. This underlines the necessity of an advanced microbial characterization of anthropogenically influenced environments.