Institute of Functional Interfaces

Tracking Cellular Functions by Exploiting the Paramagnetic Properties of X‐Nuclei

  • chair:

    Gottwald, E. / Neubauer, A. / Schad, L. R. (2016) 

  • place:

    INTECH, 2016, DOI:10.5772/61953 

  • Date: Oktober 2016


The term X‐nuclei summarises all nuclei (except protons) that occur in biological systems carrying a non‐zero nuclear spin. Significant involvement in physiological processes such as maintaining the transmembrane potential of living cells and energy metabolism make these nuclei highly interesting for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. In this chapter, a discussion of the basic physics of nuclei with a nuclear spin >1/2 is presented. On this basis, pulse sequences for the detection of multi quantum coherences (MQCs) are presented and explained. Information contained in the obtained MQC signal is linked to biophysical processes. Applications to study energy metabolism, oxygen consumption, and to track brain metabolites by means of X‐nuclei NMR are discussed as well as the use of functional phantoms, which can bridge the gap between basic biological research and NMR data interpretation.